页面有问题?请点击打印板-》打印版                  [推荐此文给朋友]
[博讯主页]->[大众观点]
   

谢选骏:南海填沙与河殇精神
请看博讯热点:南沙、西沙争端

(博讯北京时间2015年11月12日 首发 - 支持此文作者/记者)
    谢选骏更多文章请看谢选骏专栏
    
     2015年11月8日《世界日报》报道,《工人在微博泄密 南沙神秘大工程曝光》:图为美济礁上的挖掘机和装载车,近距离呈现填海造地的细节。

    
    中国于南海南沙群岛填海造地的情况被揭开神秘面纱。中国在南沙的七个岛礁进行填海造地工程已历时近两年,过程一直引发美国和东南亚多国强烈反对。近日当地一名工人于微博公开一系列施工照片,让这项神秘大型工程得以曝光。
    
    香港《苹果日报》指出,以往对于中国在南沙群岛填海造地的照片,大多为从太空拍摄的卫星照,以及美国侦察机从远距离拍摄所得。庞大工程一直尽显神秘,从前期计画、组织、协调、施工和后勤等,几乎都没有任何公开资料。至近日当地一名工人于微博公开上传一系列造地施工照,但未透露具体拍摄地点。
    
    这系列照片多从工程车上拍摄所得,显示大型机器从海中抽取海沙,并用大批挖泥机不断填海,也有大货车将沙一次过倒入海中。完成填海的地区则筑起堤防,并放置大块混凝土石趸固定。该工人称南海填海难度很大,侵蚀严重,而整个工程都极度机械化,工程使用的机器都属于民间公司,连人带机一起租用,且都是几年前才建造下水的新设备。
    
    施工地盘旁的标语写着,“亮剑深蓝,筑牢海盘,不辱使命,为国争光”。
    
    ······
    
    看完“亮剑深蓝,筑牢海盘,不辱使命,为国争光”这条标语,我不禁深有感触:“深蓝”概念源于二十七年前的1988年在北京“中央”电视台播出的《河殇》第六集“蔚蓝色”,其意义在于告别保守防卫内缩的“长城精神”,带领中国走向海外。
    
    现在,二十七年过去了。中国确实走向了海外,但是用的却是一种错误的方式,那就是“用保守防卫内缩的长城精神走向海外”,其结果就是南海填沙、铸造海上长城。
    
    海上长城和陆上长城虽然建在不同环境,但其精神却是一致的,那就是丧失了战略机动性,使得自己陷入了战略上的极端被动。
    
    和美国甚至俄国的扩张相比,长城精神都是失败的。美国用牛仔学习印第安人,俄国用哥萨克学习突厥人和蒙古人,他们都比中国更为有效地解决了游牧民族对定居民族的困扰。
    
    现在在南海问题上,相比之下,美国的应对方式就机动得多,想来就来,想走就走,深得海洋文明之精髓。
    
    简单说,美国是用航海精神在玩海,中国是用内陆精神在玩海。孰优孰劣,一目了然。
    
    要学习一个东西,就要学透,切忌学一半、丢一半。
    
    “要学习一个东西,就要学透,切忌学一半、丢一半。”——这句话对制作电视片《河殇》的北京“中央电视台”也很适用。他们制作《河殇》的时候,也把我的许多思想拿来断章取义,甚至片面发挥,因此也犯了不少的错误。
    
    会说回来。
    
    须知,海盘筑得再牢,如果没有制海权、制空权,也是孤岛。只能被动挨打,何能不辱使命,何能为国争光。
    
    这就是日本在太平洋战争中的教训。
    
    ————————————————————
    
    基督徒
    网絡文帖
    存檔
    
    作者﹕謝選駿
    
    標題﹕ 《神話与民族精神》摘要及与《河殤》的關系比較
    主題﹕ 社會文化
    
    最初發表地﹕ 宗教論壇
    
    關鍵詞﹕
    
    体裁﹕ 書摘書評
    
    《神話与民族精神》摘要及与《河殤》的關系比較
    
    作者﹕謝選駿,2000年12月
    
    《神話与民族精神﹕几個文化圈的比較》是謝選駿先生在1983年到1985年間
    撰寫的,1986年由山杔文藝出版社文化哲學叢書出版,約30万字。出版后立
    即引起廣泛注意,第一版印刷35,600冊。1987年,中國中央電視台導演夏駿
    先生与《河殤》攝制組的其他解說詞撰稿人看完該書,發現該書提出的“海
    洋文明与內陸文明”概念和有關的論述和史實,以及有關“中國文化心理的
    分裂”、“黃河文明”、“長城精神”等論述,十分切合攝制組希望進行的
    黃河文明的探討,因而決定邀請謝選駿先生共同策划并撰寫《河殤》解說詞
    第一稿。
    
    現在,為了幫助廣大讀者了解那個時代的思想演變以及《河殤》的思想背景,
    我們特地摘要《神話与民族精神》中与《河殤》解說詞關系比較直接的一些
    論述,以饗讀者。
    
    為了保持原書的風貌,我們在上网時特地按照原書的排版和頁碼,并一一注
    明了有關的省略和節選。
    
    讀者若有興趣購買原書,請与濟南山東文藝出版社(濟南市經九路胜利大街)
    聯系。
    
    -----文化哲學叢書編委會
    
    【第一部分﹕論海洋文明与內陸文明,
    摘自《神話与民族精神﹕几個文化圈的比較》
    第五章《民族精神的体現》
    第三節《聚合作用》】
    
    謝選駿
    
    一,文明?城邦?聚合作用
    
    考古學表明,早期文明大多起源于城市,古代國家多為城
    郊(城市國家,。象蘇美爾諸城邦后來統一于巴比倫帝國,埃
    及諸城郊統一于"古王國",殷代諸城郊("x方")統一為周朝
    等等。而克里特島的米諾斯文明、西北印度前雅利安的哈拉
    帕文明等等,發源地均為一個同名的城郊。因此,了解城市起
    源的特點和早期城郊的性質,有助于探索它們所哺育的神話及
    其精神的形成。
    
    經過對古代城市生活的系統梳理,就會發現城市都具有兩
    种聚合作用:一為倫理意義上(道德,的聚合,一為力量意義
    上(技術,的聚合。這兩种聚合同時存在,但在不同的時空
    中,具体到某個城市上,則各有強弱的不同。
    
    用現代術語說,前种作用偏重于"精神文明",其功能對社會群
    体有保持連續的穩定作用,后者以"物質文明"取胜,其功能是
    更積极地推動文明的進步。
    
    依据城邦面臨的內、外問題的不同性質和曲線變化,上述
    兩种作用并不是均等的,時而前者占上風,時而是后者。同理,
    在不同的城郊中,特點和需要也不盡相同。不同的古代城邦,
    對上述兩种作用的需要,有時可能恰恰相反。
    
    如在中國古代城邦和其他"東方"的內陸城邦,是宗教与道德作用更
    強,而古希腊和后來西歐的城邦,則技術作用給人的印象更為深刻。
    
    我們注意到,古希腊城郊制度及其"古典文化"興起的前提
    條件,是希腊人的海外貿易与殖民活動。而意大利城郊及其
    "文藝复興"的運動,也与威尼斯、熱內亞等商業共和國頻繁的
    海外活動締結了很深的緣份。至于近代西方文化及其社會制度
    的形成,更与"地理大發現"之后,航海事業的空前發展息息
    相關,是地理大發現這一經濟行為的文化反響。
    
    希腊的直接民主制度,歐洲的資產階級(市民)革命,都
    是海上活動中迫切需要的"力量.技術的聚合"對傳統的。倫理、
    道德的聚合"的反抗与破坏。從這种意義上說,它們都是反封
    建的.反土地貴族的、反內陸文明的。
    
    哥倫布發現新大陸的航海行為,不偶然也不孤立。
    
    早在9一10世紀之交,北歐海盜(失勢貴族与浪人,頗似
    500年后東方的"倭寇")就通過大規模的航海活動,相繼征服
    了冰島并發現了格陵蘭、北美諸地。
    
    在南歐,希腊人的航海貿易傳統被威尼斯人与熱內亞人繼
    承下來。后來,不論是發現東向航路(好望角)的葡萄牙人,
    還是發現西向航路(美洲)的西班牙人,其海上主力与骨干大
    都是受到雇佣的意大利人。甚至為英國發現并殖民北美的卡波
    特,也是出生于熱內亞而身為威尼斯公民(如哥倫布就是熱內
    亞人)。
    
    航海經商-殖民,這是從公元前3000年愛琴文明創始,爾
    后為克里特人、邁錫尼人.腓尼基人.希腊人、近代西歐
    人 一直承襲的傳統,是"地中海生活"特有的產物。它具
    有東方的馬來人航海文明所無的定期交往的特點。馬來人航行
    的海域過于寬闊(太平洋,后來是印度洋,,原始的航海技術
    工具(獨木舟等,不足以聚合為一個統一的文明實体。
    
    二,兩類"聚合"----三种結果
    
    西方城市(包括希腊城郊和歐洲各主要河流上興起的著名
    城市,起源的典型形態是,先出現一個軍事性的要塞,然后圍
    繞要塞,漸漸出現并形成了市場,最后二者合并為一個完整的
    城市。這种聚合形式,決定了希腊和西方的城市首先是一個軍
    事重鎮和經濟中心 里面匯集了來自四面八方、形形色色謀
    求實利的人們。鴉片戰爭前夕的清代人,認為歐洲人都是粗鄙
    的,因為他們能接触到的歐洲人,都是粗鄙的.貪圖實利的冒
    險家式的商人。
    
    不論軍事戰略性的還是商業經濟性的中心,其目標都在于
    追求物質力量。而作為物質的力量(不是僅有"人力"的"數
    量"),只有通過技術才能有效地獲取----因此,知識就是力
    量。
    
    獨居遠東內陸的古代中國文明,卻是另一番景觀:工商業
    在社會生活中不起主導作用。由于缺乏相應的行業組織,构不
    成獨立的社會力量,政治上也軟散無力。与此相應,中國古代
    的主要城郭,并不都位于交通要道、戰略重鎮或商業經濟中
    心,而是据于某塊肥沃農耕地帶的中心。它不是扼守軍事戰略
    的咽喉,或商業經濟的動脈;而是盤踞、"寄生"在農業區域的
    心臟。這是中國封建都市与西方都市的基本差异。
    
    從"東方"各國早期城市起源的情況看,城市是強大的"禮
    儀中心"。在禮儀中心城邦里,巫師、祭司的地位至高無上,
    他們或与王權抗衡(如巴比倫); 或与王權合一 (如中國)。
    禮儀中心,既是社會政治、經濟、文化等力量的凝聚點,又在
    人們心目中象征著宇宙模式和道德秩序。
    
    如在兩河流域,一度盛行模仿星座形態而規划建造城市的
    風尚,就是這种禮儀功能和宇宙觀念的表現。在古代中國的城
    市建筑上,剛采取了預測風水、軸向對稱以及正方向等表現形
    式,直到明清時代的皇宮建筑都始終頑強保持著這些特征。這
    表明,"象征性"是內陸縱深地帶里古代城市的一大特點,它是
    另一類型的聚合形式。
    
    事實上,中國文化屬于注重人倫關系的現實政治;而巴比倫
    文化則屬注重神人關系的神權政治。后者對希伯萊文化不無影
    響。
    
    在巴比倫歷史上,王權和僧侶教權的斗爭綿延不絕,最終
    導致它的分裂与衰亡;僧侶們歡迎那些愿意承認他們宗教權威
    的外來征服者,從而促使了本地王權的覆滅。但類似的事情,
    在中國古代是不存在的:王權与教權,從來都是合一的、不可
    分离的。王即"天子" 亦即上帝的代表与化身。
    
    同為"東方",但中國与巴比倫的文化形態不同,正如中國
    与希伯萊的神話及精神差异很大一樣。希伯萊古代社會的教權
    与政權始而分离,但終于合一。亡國之后的猶太人,只能以教
    權控制自己的社會生活,這与中國古代教權的日趨松馳合并于
    政權,而封建政權(國家)日益鞏固、強大的發展万向正好相
    反。
    
    古代(先秦)中國的封建諸侯大多居于都市中心,歐洲尤其
    是日耳曼中部的封建諸侯大多盤踞在偏僻的山野 這种區別
    可能基于地形差异的偶然因素,但卻對文化的發展影響深遠:
    中國文化從來都不是黷武的,偶而出現了軍事色彩較濃的強權
    政治中心,如秦朝、隋朝.元朝等(它們都興起于邊疆各民族
    雜居地帶),都壽命不長。總之,"德化"和"文治"在傳統上受
    到比"武功"更大的重視。
    
    在中國文明的中心地帶,极少有可以憑借的高山險阻。因
    此,只能依靠"人",依靠群体。在古代中國的道德訓誡中,充
    滿了有關依恃險要地形胡作非為、不恤民情而終致亡國的長串
    例子。從歷史科學的角度看,這些事例是真假參半的,但它突
    出說明了古代中國人的信念。這個信念就是:人類群体的力量
    胜過自然天賦的优勢("人定胜天",意為"人定胜于天賦",定
    即"穩定")。
    
    所以,"西方的"海上諸文明(希腊、迦太基、西歐諸國)
    的聚合力量是"知識","東方的"內陸諸文明(包括巴比倫、希
    伯萊与古代中國)的聚合力量是"道德"。
    
    中國与巴比倫、希伯萊的區別在于:前者信仰人倫道德,注重
    社會政治;而后兩者則信仰神人之間的"立約"。《舊約?傳道
    書》明确宣布,"敬畏耶和華,是知識的開端"。類似的宗教式
    "知識"在古代中國則十分難得,從而,在"東方"類型的聚合形
    式中,构成不同的兩個种屬。
    
    古代文明中心(城市)的這"兩种聚合"作用,對神話的影
    響深刻而微妙。中國神話的重倫理和希腊神話的重哲理,即是
    這兩种聚合作用分別催化的奇葩----即是兩种聚合力量作用于
    神話意識必定導致的分化。
    
    ----------------------------------------------------------
    
    《神話与民族精神﹕几個文化圈的比較》全書目錄
    
    緒論 神話的奧秘
    
    一 古代神話的起源与發展·········································· 1
    
    二 現存神話材料的兩重性·········································· 5
    
    三 古代社會.原始思維.神話圖景································· 10
    
    四 獨立神話与体系神話············································· 14
    
    五 体系神話的諸層面················································ 19
    
    六 各族神話的不平衡態············································· 26
    
    七 体系神話的節奏感················································ 30
    
    八 為什么選擇這個角度研究古代神話··························· 37
    
    九 本書涉及的范圍··················································· 45
    
    第一章 系列的表象世界
    
    第一節 尼羅河························································· 51
    
    一 神形原始···························································· 51
    
    二 神性原始···························································· 53
    
    三 神界故事系列······················································ 53
    
    四 神際關系···························································· 54
    
    第二節 美索不達米亞················································ 55
    
    一 "泥版"的故鄉······················································ 55
    
    二 "神族的對立"······················································ 56
    
    三 神形与主神························································· 58
    
    四 神界故事···························································· 59
    
    五 《吉爾伽美什》大史詩·········································· 61
    
    第三節 愛琴海························································· 63
    
    一 海上的"寶庫"······················································ 63
    
    二 創世·································································· 64
    
    三 人類的起源························································· 66
    
    四 災難·································································· 66
    
    五 救世·································································· 67
    
    六 文化超人···························································· 68
    
    七 探險和征服的超人················································ 69
    
    八 赫拉克勒斯形象的含義·········································· 70
    
    第四節 神秘的九州··················································· 72
    
    一 "九"州与"多"元··················································· 72
    
    二 女媧"創世"························································· 74
    
    三 盤古開天地························································· 75
    
    四 "洪水神話"的疑問················································ 77
    
    五 中國的救災超人們················································ 79
    
    六 文化超人···························································· 81
    
    七 黃帝与蚩尤的"逐鹿"············································· 83
    
    大 黃帝与蚩尤的"變异"············································· 87
    
    九 丰富和零亂························································· 89
    
    第二章 直觀的表象世界
    
    第一節 神祗的變遷··················································· 93
    
    一 動物神祗···························································· 93
    
    二 人獸同体···························································· 96
    
    三 神人同形···························································· 102
    
    第二節 西王母与复仇女神的啟示································· 105
    
    一 西王母与复仇女神················································ 105
    
    二 "啟示"······························································· 109
    
    第三節 古神、老神、新神·········································· 111
    
    一 堤福俄斯与宙斯··················································· 111
    
    二 潘神·································································· 113
    
    三 太陽神的故事······················································ 114
    
    四 普羅米修斯的"功"与"過"······································· 115
    
    五 "神界層次"的來歷················································ 116
    
    六 動物的"遺形"······················································ 118
    
    七 北歐神話中的"遺形"············································· 120
    
    人 在"眾神末日"的背后············································· 121
    
    第四節 中國式的"分裂"············································· 123
    
    一 神的改良道路······················································ 123
    
    二 古史傳說中的"善惡"之戰······································· 125
    
    三 "層次"与故事性··················································· 126
    
    四 系統与"分裂"······················································ 127
    
    五 "分裂"的始末······················································ 128
    
    第三章 表象世界的主宰者
    
    第一節 從埃及到巴比倫············································· 132
    
    一 埃及的阿頓神······················································ 132
    
    二 巴比倫的馬爾都克神············································· 134
    
    第二節 宙斯的使命··················································· 135
    
    一 主神﹕神系的紐帶················································ 135
    
    二 希腊精神和巴比倫精神·········································· 136
    
    三 雅典娜的身世······················································ 138
    
    四 阿波羅的命運······················································ 138
    
    五 宙斯的家系························································· 140
    
    六 "七妻"与"七日"··················································· 141
    
    七 宙斯的"外遇"······················································ 142
    
    八 希腊与"北歐一印度"············································· 145
    
    第三節 "亂倫"和"亂愛"············································· 146
    
    一 現象与通常的兩种解釋·········································· 146
    
    二 質疑·································································· 149
    
    三 答案·································································· 152
    
    四 諸神的"來歷" ······················································ 154
    
    五 赫拉的"天職"······················································ 157
    
    六 "神系"的功能······················································ 158
    
    第四節 中國式的"嚴謹"与"散漫"································· 159
    
    一 性的嚴謹···························································· 159
    
    二 族系的狹隘························································· 161
    
    三 伏羲与女媧························································· 162
    
    四 始祖、主神、神网················································ 164
    
    五 至上神問題························································· 166
    
    六 材料的散漫及其背景············································· 168
    
    七 "整理"、 "分系"的努力······································· 170
    
    八 中國式的形態······················································ 173
    
    第四章 表象世界的凝聚体
    
    第一節 古代各民族的"圣書"······································· 176
    
    一 埃及·································································· 176
    
    二 蘇美爾----巴比倫················································ 177
    
    三 印度·································································· 179
    
    四 希腊·································································· 180
    
    五 希伯萊······························································· 180
    
    六 波斯·································································· 182
    
    七 北歐·································································· 183
    
    八 日本·································································· 184
    
    九 中國·································································· 186
    
    第二節 古代中國宗教圣書的空白································· 189
    
    一 古史傳說的系列··················································· 189
    
    二 神話与民族命運··················································· 190
    
    三 中國的特性························································· 192
    
    第三節 空白的由來··················································· 194
    
    一 宗教神話的非主体性············································· 194
    
    三 韓流神与《堯典》的啟示······································· 196
    
    三 偉大与夸張的報應················································ 200
    
    第四節 "特殊精神"··················································· 202
    
    一 洗禮与早熟························································· 202
    
    二 現世与務實························································· 204
    
    第五章 民族精神的表現
    
    第一節 兩种境界······················································ 209
    
    一 兩個"例外"························································· 209
    
    二 "德"与"力" ························································· 213
    
    三 "德"与"力"的滲透················································ 218
    
    四 "命運"与"天命" ··················································· 223
    
    第二節 三种理解······················································ 234
    
    一 三個系統及比較··················································· 234
    
    二 三种人格化的理想···················································244
    
    第三節 聚合作用·························································255
    
    一 文明.城邦.聚合作用················································ 255
    
    二 兩類"聚合"----三种結果·········································· 257
    
    第六章 民族精神的背景
    
    第一節 經濟影響的實例············································· 262
    
    一 "童年"的遭遇······················································ 262
    
    二 海洋与內陸························································· 267
    
    三 崇力与求知························································· 272
    
    四 幸運的民族························································· 276
    
    五 傳統与走勢························································· 281
    
    第二節 政治影響的實例············································· 290
    
    一 "少典氏帝系"与"奧林匹斯神系"······························ 290
    
    二 遠古神祗与近古帝王············································· 298
    
    三 "一帝"与"群神"··················································· 303
    
    第三節 宗教影響的實例············································· 311
    
    一 一神觀念的來源和命運·········································· 311
    
    二 猶太一神教的轉机················································ 315
    
    三 契約思想的啟示··················································· 325
    
    第七章 歷史化的道路
    
    第一節 歷史化的三條途徑·········································· 335
    
    一 "歷史化"的解釋··················································· 335
    
    二 希腊式······························································· 335
    
    三 中國式······························································· 337
    
    四 希伯萊式···························································· 339
    
    第二節 中國神話歷史化的契机···································· 342
    
    一 中國的"史官文化" ················································ 342
    
    二 "子不語怪、力、亂、神"辨···································· 342
    
    三 殷周文化的綜合者················································ 346
    
    四 原始"天命觀"的誕生············································· 350
    
    五 《酒誥》的佐證与提示·········································· 358
    
    第三節 獨特的神話与文化風貌···································· 365
    
    一 古神的沒落与新神的崛起······································· 365
    
    二 歷史化的文學傳統················································ 369
    
    第八章 反思的余論
    
    第一節 神話与其他精神現象······································· 372
    
    一 神話与巫術、圖騰、原始宗教································· 372
    
    二 神話与藝術、仙話、寓言、
    
    幻想故事、志怪神魔、科幻小說································· 380
    
    第二節 時代的思考··················································· 390
    
    一 神話与現代意識··················································· 390
    
    二 人類早期的啟蒙運動············································· 394
    
    三 神話与民族文化··················································· 397
    
    四 中國文化心理的分裂············································· 400
    
    五 史詩.英雄崇拜.世界眼光······································· 406
    
    六 《坊記》、《大禹謨》与"長城精神"························ 412
    
    神話与民族精神----几個文化圈的比較
    
    謝選駿 著
    
    山東文藝出版社出版
    
    (濟南經九路胜利大街)
    
    山東省新華書店發行 山東新華印刷厂印刷
    
    850x1168毫米32開本 18.5印張 2插頁 295千宇
    
    1986年10月第1版 1987年2月第2次印刷
    
    印數5,601一35.600
    
    書號10331.257 定价2.95元
    
    文章版權歸原作者所有
     (C)1996-2000 Chinese Christian Internet Mission. All rights reserved [博讯首发,转载请注明出处]- 支持此文作者/记者(博讯 boxun.com)
(本文只代表作者或者发稿团体的观点、立场)
2620637
分享:
blog comments powered by Disqus
   
------------------------------------


相关报道(更多请利用搜索功能):
·谢选骏:互联网是思想主权的恩典!——对笛卡儿以来西方思想的终结
·谢选骏:两岸同属一个没有元首和政府的国家
·谢选骏:习近平承认,共产党革命是一场悲剧
·谢选骏:请不要诬蔑犬儒
·谢选骏:两个中国在新加坡宣告解散
·谢选骏读史笔记:中华民国的大饥荒
·谢选骏:两个中国互相承认,第三中国拉开序幕
·谢选骏:中华人民共和国正在“退出国联”?
·谢选骏:中国大陆能够击败美日联合舰队吗?
·谢选骏:美国给中共指出了两条路
·谢选骏:美国夏波议员不可分裂中国主权
·谢选骏:《田中奏折》指引中共“大国崛起”
·谢选骏:用“文明共享”取代“文明冲突”
·谢选骏:鲁迅的《阿Q正传》来源于斯宾格勒的“费拉”?
·谢选骏读史笔记:不可勾结外敌入侵本国
·谢选骏读史笔记:恶犬与恶人
·谢选骏:日本人为了自己又在支持中国革命
·谢选骏:毛泽东像章窃取北魏佛教艺术
·谢选骏:台湾国语和大陆普通话的差异来自两个党国的南北朝格局
·谢选骏:国民党的今天就是共产党的明天
·谢选骏:《上帝之城》批注第1——10篇
·谢选骏:莫言-张艺谋《红高粱》秘辛
·谢选骏:袁世凯登基100周年纪
·谢选骏:吴稼祥误解了习近平
·谢选骏:1913年“兴兵争总统”的闹剧
·谢选骏:项羽为何不肯回家?
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(19)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(18)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(17)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(16)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(15)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(14)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(13)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(12)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(11)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(10)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(9)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(8)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(7)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(6)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(5)
·特别连载:谢选骏《中国文明整合全球》(4)
联系我们


All rights reserved
博讯是畅所欲言的场所、所有文章均不一定代表博讯立场
声明:博讯由编辑、义务留学生、学者维护,如有版权问题,请联系我们。另外,欢迎其他媒体 转载博讯文章,为尊重作者的辛勤劳动以及所承担风险,尊重博讯广大义务人士的奉献,请转载时注明来源和作者。