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廖亦武:答巴西《环球日报》记者提问
(博讯北京时间2009年10月15日 转载)
    廖亦武更多文章请看廖亦武专栏
    来源:独立笔会 作者:廖亦武
     (博讯 boxun.com)

    1. You have not been allowed by the Chinese government to go to the Frankurt Book Fair. What exactly happened? Were you given any explanation or justification?
     请说明你应邀参加法兰克福书展后,地方公安不许你出境的事件发生的整个过程?他们如何向你解释他们的决定?
    
    答:近两个月,我曾3次与管理我的警察谈判,强调这是一次商业和文化活动,可他们仍然明确表态,我不能去德国参加法兰克福书展,以及相关活动。本地警方说,这是上级的决定,因为我的名字还没有从一张很老很老的名单上拿下来。并且我的近期作品也不符合他们的胃口,损害了社会主义国家形象。
    
    LYW: These past 2 months I’ve negotiated with the police administering me 3 times, emphasizing that this is a commercial and cultural activity, yet they still emphatically state that I cannot go to Germany to attend the Frankfurt Book Fair and associated activities. The local police say this is a decision made above them, because my name has not yet been taken off a very old list. Moreover, my recent literary work does not suit their tastes and damages the image of a socialist nation.
    
    2. This is not the first time that you are fordbidden to leave China.
    How many times has it happened? Have you ever been abroad? Is the man who arrested you in 1989 still working in the Customs of your province?
     这已不是你初次被禁止离开中国了。同类事件发生过多少次?你出过国吗?1989年逮捕你的人是不是至今仍在公安局的出入境管理局工作?
    
    答:我曾经9次申请护照,被拒;第10次,成功了,但没有警方特许,还不能出国。这次是第12次被拒出境。20年前逮捕我的专案组中的书记员,叫卓树民,眼下是出入境管理局的科长,我每次与他打交道,都有屈辱感,我们的关系还是警察与囚犯的关系。
    
    LYW: I’ve applied for and been refused a passport 9 times; I was successful the 10th time, but without special permission from the police I cannot leave the country. This is the 12th time I’ve not been allowed to leave the country. Zhuo Shu-min, the secretary of the special case squad that arrested me 20 years ago, is at this time the head of the Border Exit-Entry Department, and every time I deal with him, I feel humiliated, as our relationship is still that of policeman and prisoner.
    
    3. China’s participation in the Frankfurt Book Fair is another step for a country that has been trying to show a new image of itself to the world. But, as it happened during the Olympics last year, the event ends up exposing many of the contradictions of contemporary China: it is a country that wants to open itself to the world, but it won’t let a writer go abroad. What do you think about these contradictions and do you believe they can be solved?
     中国参加法兰克福书展是为了进一步向全世界显示自己的新形象。但与去年奥运会期间发生的情况一样,整个事件反而暴露出当代中国的诸多矛盾:中国是想向世界展示自己,但却不让一个作家出国。你如何认识这些矛盾,你认为这些问题能否得到解决?
    
    答:中国有句成语:又当婊子,又立牌坊。共产党是这样,共产党圈养的那些去法兰克福露脸的作家们也这样。这就是铁蹄下的中国国情。不幸的是,这个党太有钱了,许多西方人看在钱的份上,也加入了“文化奥运”的合唱。这些矛盾,一时半会解决不了。中国人在这些矛盾中,只会变得更加无耻。
    
    LYW: There is a saying in China: Be a prostitute, and attempt to establish a good reputation. The Communist Party is like this, and the authors who were raised by the Communist Party that are appearing in Frankfurt are also like this. This is the state of China under the iron hooves [of the CCP]. The unfortunate thing is this Party has too much money and so many westerners are impressed by money, in addition to taking part in the chorus of “cultural Olympics”. These contradictions cannot be resolved in the short-term. Amid these contradictions, people of China can only become more shameless.
    
    4. With all these contradictions and problems with freedom of speech yet to be solved, is it correct to honor China in the Book Fair?
     在这些矛盾和涉及到言论自由的问题尚待解决的情况下,在书展上赞誉中国,这是正确的吗?
    
    答:商人赞誉中国,可以理解,他们想掏腰包;政客赞誉中国,可以理解,因为他们常常睁着眼睛说瞎话。但是西方的记者和作家如果不想集体堕落,就不能赞誉中国。
    
    
    LYW: It’s understandable that business men and women praise China, they want pick [China’s] pocket; It’s understandable that politicians praise China, as they frequently speak blind words while their eyes are open. But if the journalists and writers of the West do not want to degenerate collectively, they cannot praise China.
    
    5. You write about common people, about peasants and workers and
    vagabonds. Why do you think your work is so threatening to the Chinese authorities?
     你写的是普通人,是农民、工人、流浪汉,请谈一谈为什么你的作品会对中共当局造成如此的威胁?
    
    答:我的作品妨碍了他们对老百姓洗脑。我是个体见证者,而他们要么是记忆伪造者,要么是遗忘症患者。可怕的是,众多中国文化人由于得了他们的好处,主动参加了这场辉煌的伪造或遗忘游戏。比如张艺谋,率众导演了北京奥运,比如陈凯歌,率众制作了《建国大业》,比如莫言,极端民族主义的种子选手。在这场持久的角力中,我和我的地下文学同道们,处于劣势。
    
    LYW: My works hinder their brainwashing of the common people. I’m an individual witness, and they’re falsifiers of memory or amnesiacs. What’s frightening is that as a result of gaining benefits from them [CCP], the great majority of those who work in culture in China participate in this game of falsification and amnesia of their own initiative. For example, Zhang Yi-mou was the director-in-chief of the Beijing Olympics, Chen Kai-ge produced [the film] The Founding of a Republic, and Mo Yan is a selected competitor in seeding extreme nationalism. In this enduring contest of strength, me and my fellow writers of underground literature are in a bad situation.
    
    6. What are “People without a residential permit” (Hei-ren-hei-hu) andwhy are they called “the silent majority” in China? You consider yourself one of them: how has this condition influenced your life and your writing?
     什么是“黑人黑户”?为什么他们被称为中国的“沉默的大多数”?你认为你属于他们中的一员吗?这一处境如何影响了你的生活和你的作品?
    
    答:黑人黑户,是指那些没有户口的人和家庭,也包括大量在城市里居无定所的打工仔。他们经常被查《暂住证》,被莫名其妙地带到派出所,被莫名其妙地遣送回原籍。比如我出狱后住在成都,我从小就生活在成都,可我的户口却在另一个城市涪陵,于是警察常常以此为理由,查户口,抄家,将我带走,命令我几个月就办一次《暂住证》。所以我也属于我作品中的一员。“沉默的大多数”也包括我自己。不过,最近我有发言权了,因为不能去德国,我被采访了几十次。
    
    LYW: “People without a residential permit” refers to those people without individuals and families without residence permits, including all those workers in cities without fixed abodes. They are constantly checked for “Temporary Residence Permits”, are carted off police stations for unknown reasons, and are similarly returned to their places of residence/birth. For example, I lived in Chengdu after my release from prison and I’d lived in Chengdu since I was a child, but I was registered as a resident of Fu-ling, another city, so the police often use this as a reason to inspect my residence permit, search my home, take me into custody, and order me to get a “Temporary Residence Permit” within a couple of months. And so I am also one of the characters in my literary works. I am included among “the silent majority”. However, recently I’ve had the right to speak out… as a result of not being able to go to Germany; I’ve been interviewed dozens of times.
    
    7. You have been jailed for years and subject to torture and
    confinement. ! And yet you say that prison has been one of your
    “teachers” in life. What has prison taught you?
     你曾入狱多年,备受折磨与囚禁。你说监狱是你生活中的教师之一。监狱教给你了什么?
    
    答:将中国政客和中国作家写过的历史扔进茅坑。从头开始,见证,见证,见证,然后才是文学。
    
    LYW: Throw the history written by China’s politicians and writers into the latrine pit. Start from the beginning… witness, witness, witness, then there’s literature.
    
    8. You have often said that all your enemies are your teachers. Can your work teach something to the enemy too?
     你常说你的敌人都是你的教师。那你的作品也教给你的敌人什么东西了没有?
    
    答:这次在法兰克福书展,算教给了他们一点东西。人可能被监禁,思想和文化是不可能被监禁的。所以独立自由的写作比什么都重要。
    
    LYW: It could be said that I’ve taught them a little something over this Frankfurt Book Fair. A person may be imprisoned, but thought and culture cannot be. So, independent and free writing is more important than anything else.
    
    9. You were arrested for writing a poem about the massacre of
    Tiananmen. Did you take part in those protests? 20 years later, how does China deal with the memories of those events? And how has the country changed in these 20 years regarding personal lberties and freedom of speech?
     你因写作天安门大屠杀的诗歌而被捕。你是否也参加了那次抗议活动?20十年过去了,中国如何应对六四事件的记忆?20年来,这个国家在个人自由和言论自由方面有什么变化?
    
    答:我早年是个无政府主义者,不参加任何群众运动。但是那夜开枪了,我有什么办法,我没法控制我对杀人者的恐惧和愤怒。所以我写诗朗诵坐牢。活该。如今,看看他们怎么对待我,对待我的朋友刘晓波,对待大量的六四死难者家属,就知道他们怎么对待这段记忆了。
    
    至于言论自由,因为互联网,因为来自西方,主要是美国的压力,他们不得不有些变化。
    
    LYW: In my youth I was an anarchist, and never participated in any collective movement. But what choice did I have that night when guns started firing, I could not control my terror and hatred of those doing the killing. So I write a poem, recorded a reading, and went to prison. Deservedly so. Today, see how they treat me, how they treat my friend Liu Xiao-bo, how they treat most of the families of the victims of June 4th, and you see how they treat this memory.
    
    10. What would you say in Frankfurt if you had been allowed to go?
    如果你被允许出席法兰克福书展,你会发表什么讲述?
    
    答:我会吹箫和朗诵,还会扯开喉咙吼些中国民间的苦调子,这些土味十足的东西,都被绝大多数出席书展的官方作家强数倍。也许他们一见这么个野人来,就会集体退场,那没办法,我们同专制极其奴才的根本差异,是审美上的。
    
    LYW: I would play the flute and recite poetry, and I would rip loose a few bitter folk songs of China. These richly locally-flavored things are better by far than anything produced by the vast majority of the officially sanctioned writers appearing at the book fair. Possibly as soon as they’d see such a wild man [as me], they’d collectively withdraw… but there’s nothing that can be done about that, our basic difference with the despots and their flunkies is in the area of aesthetic appreciation. (博讯记者:蔡楚) (博讯 boxun.com)
(本文只代表作者或者发稿团体的观点、立场)

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