[加评论] 页面有问题?请点击打印板-》打印版                  [推荐此文给朋友]
[博讯主页]->[大众观点]
   

乔安尼·利多姆-阿克曼:零八宪章:公民十年
(博讯北京时间2009年1月01日 转载)
    来源:(张裕译)
    
     (博讯 boxun.com)

    华盛顿到处搭起大看台。美国正准备为一位新总统就职做准备,其竞选调动了创纪录的公民人数,并注重希望和改变的主题。
    
    在环球一半路的那个世界人口最多的国家,一群人数相对少的公民正为他们国家建议着彻底改变,在很大部分反映了美国赖以建国的理想。然而,建议这种改变者已被传讯和拘捕。
    
    12月10日,《世界人权宣言》60周年,300多位杰出的中国大陆公民——作家、经济学家、政治学者、退休党官、前报纸编辑,法界人士和维权人士发表了《零八宪章》。《零八宪章》规划了一个基于公民而非基于党的民主中国远景,要有一个基于人权、民主和法治的政府。《零八宪章》不止于提供现行政治制度的改革,而是要终结一党专制等功能。自发表以来,中国各地超过5000公民联署了《零八宪章》 。
    
    在该文告发表前,中国当局就拘留了两位主要作家刘晓波和张祖桦,此后又传讯了数十位签署者。其中大多数已获释,尽管继续受监视。然而,曾任独立中文笔会会长的重要作家刘晓波仍被拘禁在未知地点,人们担忧他将被控以“违反国家基本原则的严重罪行”。中国政府还封锁或删除刊载《零八宪章》的网站和博客。
    
    《零八宪章》的灵感来自于苏联高峰期的一个类似行动,那时捷克斯洛伐克的作家和知识分子于1977年1月发表了《七七宪章》。《七七宪章》呼吁国家保障基本公民权利和政治权利。瓦茨拉夫·哈维尔是签署者之一,因此被监禁,但他继续坚持,到苏联终结后成为捷克共和国总统。
    
    世界各地的公民,包括哈维尔、诺贝尔奖得主、人权捍卫者、作家、经济学家、律师、学者,群起支持《零八宪章》签署者。欧盟已对拘捕刘晓波等表示了严重关切。支持《零八宪章》和抗议拘捕刘晓波的请愿书在世界各地流传。
    
    拘捕刘晓波发生在人权日暨《世界人权宣言》六十周年前夕。 2008年也是中国的戊戌变法一百一十周年,中国第一部宪法一百周年,中国签署《公民权利和政治权利国际公约》十周年,不久将是镇压学生的“六四” 二十周年。
    
    《零八宪章》很值得一读。它在前言中描述了中国政治史,然后提出了政府应该基于的基本原则——自由、人权、平等、共和、民主和宪政。这份文件提出具体主张——修改宪法,分权制衡,立法民主,司法独立,公器公用,人权保障,公职选举,城乡平等,结社自由,集会自由,言论自由,宗教自由,公民教育,财产保护,财税改革,社会保障,环境保护,联邦共和,真相与和解。
    
    《零八宪章》规划了一项雄心勃勃的议程,将使中国政治气候和政府结构革命化,但它倡导改变并非通过暴力,而是通过公民参与。这是天真?有勇无谋?或者这是作为中国激励和增强其公民性的远景?
    
    “我们本着勇于践行的公民精神,公布《零八宪章》。”宪章签署者们宣示,“我们希望所有具有同样危机感、责任感和使命感的中国公民,不分朝野,不论身份,求同存异,积极参与到公民运动中来,共同推动中国社会的伟大变革,以期早日建成一个自由、民主、宪政的国家,实现国人百余年来锲而不舍的追求与梦想。”
    
    当美国公民准备一个新总统——首位非裔美国总统就任时,美国目前并不象在其选举过程中体认200多年前提出的那些理想那样,那么体认改变。
    
    理念可能被压制一段时间,其作者可能会受到迫害,但理念和文字关系重大。它们终究是推进改变的燃料。那些有勇气将它们记载下来发表者,可能将成为其肩膀为一代代人所站立的奠基之父。
    
    2008年12月31日
    
    (张裕译)
    译者注:乔安尼·利多姆-阿克曼女士是美国作家兼记者,美国笔会理事,国际笔会副会长、前秘书长、狱中作家委员会前主席。
    ------------------------------------
    
    Charter 08: Decade of the Citizen
    
    by Joanne Leedom-Ackerman
    
    Grandstands are rising around Washington, DC. The U.S. is preparing for the Inauguration of a new President whose campaign mobilized a record number of citizens and focused on themes of hope and change.
    
    Half way around the globe in the world’s most populous country, a relatively small group of citizens are proposing radical change for their nation, change which reflects in large part the ideals upon which the United States was founded. However, the proponents of this change have been interrogated and arrested.
    
    On December 10, the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 300 leading mainland Chinese citizens—writers, economists, political scientists, retired party officials, former newspaper editors, members of the legal profession and human rights defenders--issued Charter 08. Charter 08 sets out a vision for a democratic China based on the citizen not the party, with a government founded on human rights, democracy, and rule of law. Charter 08 doesn’t offer reform of the current political system so much as an end to features like one-party rule. Since its release, more than 5000 citizens across China have added their names to Charter 08.
    
    Before the document was even published, the Chinese authorities detained two of the leading authors Liu Xiaobo and Zhang Zuhua and have since interrogated dozens of others who signed. Most have been released though they continue to be watched. However, Liu Xiaobo, a major writer and former president of the Independent Chinese PEN Center, remains in custody with no word of his whereabouts and fears that he will be charged with “serious crimes against the basic principles of the Republic.” The Chinese government has also blocked or deleted websites and blogs that carry Charter 08.
    
    Charter 08 was inspired by a similar action during the height of the Soviet Union when writers and intellectuals in Czechoslovakia issued Charter 77 in January, 1977. Charter 77 called for protection of basic civil and political rights by the state. Among the signatories was Vaclav Havel, who was imprisoned for his involvement but went on to become the President of the Czech Republic after the Soviet Union ended.
    
    Citizens around the globe, including Vaclav Havel, Nobel laureates, human rights defenders, writers, economists, lawyers, academics, have rallied in support of those who signed Charter 08. The European Union has expressed grave concern at the arrest of Liu Xiaobo and others. Petitions in support of Charter 08 and in protest over the detention of Liu Xiaobo are circulating around the world.
    
    The arrest of Liu Xiaobo happened on the eve of Human Rights Day and the 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The year 2008 is also the 110th Anniversary of China’s Wuxu Political Reform, the 100th Anniversary of China’s first Constitution and the 10th Anniversary of China’s signing of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the soon-to-be 20th anniversary of the Tiananmen Square crackdown against students.
    
    Charter ’08 is well worth reading. It sets out the political history of China in its forward, then proposes fundamental principles--freedom, human rights, equality, republicanism, democracy and constitutional law—upon which the government should be based. The document advocates specific steps--a new constitution, separation of powers, legislative democracy, independent judiciary, public control of public servants, guarantee of human rights, election of public officials, rural-urban equality, freedom to form groups, freedom to assemble, freedom of expression, freedom of religion, civic education, protection of private property, finance and tax reform, social security, protection of the environment, a federated republic, truth and reconciliation.
    
    Charter 08 lays forth an ambitious agenda, one that would revolutionize the political climate and governing structures of China, but it advocates for change not through violence, but through citizen participation. Is this naive? Foolhardy? Or is this vision for China one that will inspire and empower its citizenry?
    
    “We dare to put civic spirit into practice by announcing Charter 08,” declare the signatories. “We hope that our fellow citizens who feel a similar sense of crisis, responsibility, and mission, whether they are inside the government or not, and regardless of their social status, will set aside small differences to embrace the broad goals of this citizens’ movement. Together we can work for major changes in Chinese society and for the rapid establishment of a free and constitutional country.”
    
    As citizens in the U.S. prepare to inaugurate a new President, the first African American President, the country is not so much realizing change as realizing in its electoral process the ideals set forth over 200 years ago.
    
    Ideas may be repressed for a time and their authors may be persecuted, but ideas and words matter. Eventually they are the fuel for the engine of change. Those who have the courage to set them down and publish them may turn out to be the founding fathers on whose shoulders generations will stand.
    
    December 30, 2008 (博讯记者:蔡楚) (博讯 boxun.com)
(本文只代表作者或者发稿团体的观点、立场)

博讯相关报道(最近20条,更多请利用搜索功能):
  • 刘逸明:《零八宪章》照出了左翼知识分子的无耻嘴脸
  • 余杰:与国保警官谈零八宪章
  • 历史的逻辑、合力及其它——《零八宪章》与《胡锦涛在纪念中共十一届三中全会30周年大会上的讲话》
  • 《零八宪章》有可能成为历史上最伟大的一次签名活动/胡平(图)
  • 丁乙/《零八宪章》所遭遇到的网络封锁(补充)
  • 胡平:支持《零八宪章》参与公民运动
  • 简评《零八宪章》
  • 法国张健 ,我对零八宪章的看法
  • 零八宪章世界语版本/郑存柱
  • 《零八宪章》——不是内容问题,而是什么人提的问题(图)
  • 零八宪章(民间修订版•征求意见稿)
  • 零八宪章:让我们对民主多点信心/杨逢时
  • 施化: 在中国,谁支持《零八宪章》?
  • 鲁南:“粉红色”也属“红色”——驳《零八政见》,兼为《零八宪章》一辩
  • 刘厚泽/从《零八宪章》出发 开创中国新局面
  • 李果:贵州人权捍卫者集体学习《零八宪章》
  • 从《零八宪章》出发 开创中国新局面/刘厚泽
  • 零八宪章,与虎谋皮/凤凰
  • 与万民同为《零八宪章》鼓与呼
  • 《零八宪章》正式标识发布(图)
  • 维权网:中共认为“《零八宪章》联邦制的条款性质很严重”
  • 张宪:面对《零八宪章》的勇气与谦卑
  • 湖北选举专家姚立法因《零八宪章》被传唤
  • 《零八宪章》只是最温和的诉求
  • 零八宪章签名人留言摘选(十七)
  • 中国零八宪章签署人谈论当局施压
  • 《零八宪章》第九批签名人正式名单(共616人)
  • 中国当局严封《零八宪章》,GOOGLE充当当局封网工具
  • 零八宪章签名人留言摘选(十六)
  • 蔡楚:零八宪章的签名人张祖桦被警方带走(图)
  • 零八宪章签名人留言选摘(十五)
  • 零八宪章与七七宪章的对比
  • 《零八宪章》签名风波,开始在成都发酵!
  • 因涉及《零八宪章》,冉云飞牛博网博客被关
  • 刘正有:为《零八宪章》坐牢感到自豪(图)
  • 余杰因参与签署《零八宪章》被国保查问和警告
  • 中国新闻社浙江分社对《零八宪章》做出正式回应(图)
  • 零八宪章签名人留言选摘(十四)


    点击这里对此新闻发表看法
  •    
    联系我们


    All rights reserved
    博讯是畅所欲言的场所、所有文章均不一定代表博讯立场
    声明:博讯由编辑、义务留学生、学者维护,如有版权问题,请联系我们。另外,欢迎其他媒体 转载博讯文章,为尊重作者的辛勤劳动以及所承担风险,尊重博讯广大义务人士的奉献,请转载时注明来源和作者。