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艾晓明 :为什么不能殴打人权捍卫者
(博讯2006年2月05日)
    <独立中文笔会>网首发 http://www.chinesepen.org/
    
     昨天, 2006年 2月 4日 正月初七凌晨大约零时30 分,广东的维权工作者郭飞雄先生在迈出天河火车东站林和派出所门槛时被早已守候在那里的一群人按倒殴打,这群人要用武力教训郭飞雄一顿的目的终于达到了。 (博讯 boxun.com)

    
    郭飞雄猝不及防的一声惨叫必然被所有当天值班的民警听到,无人出来干涉。
    
    这场殴打当然也在民警的预料之中,正如前一天我到天河石牌东派出所接唐荆陵律师时民警所问:看你们不像有钱的,也不像跟人有私仇,为什么老打你们?
    
    这场殴打也在我和唐律师的预料之中,在此之前,唐律师已经在派出所门外守候了五个小时之久。大约 11 点了,唐律师以为当晚一定不会释放郭飞雄了,所以离开。我虽然内心焦急,却没有去派出所,内心暗怀侥幸:现在就剩郭飞雄一个人,办案人员当有恻隐之心,不打孤身一人的郭飞雄。就算三岁小孩也知道,以众凌寡,是为可耻。
    
    但这样的事情就在派出所眼皮子下发生了,它为维权工作者遭到暴力对待的事实提供了新的记录。
    
    去年以来,发生过多次这类事件,挨打者有临沂盲人律师陈光诚、法学家许志永、律师李方平、人大代表吕邦列、姚立法、维权工作者赵昕,暴力程度有长期限制行动自由、昏迷不醒和胫骨骨折,近来更有高智晟律师险遭车祸事例。我亲身经历的 9 月26 日和郭艳律师、唐荆陵律师、小张记者被围攻,凶手至今未被追究。
    
    肆意殴打普通民众的事件在中国并不稀罕,而教授、学者、律师、记者、人大代表无一例外遭受暴力而不受法律制裁,释放了一个非常危险的信号。它公然挑衅国家宪法,污辱"国家尊重和保障人权"的根本原则;它威胁着中央政府一再提倡的"以人为本"、"和谐社会",也使我们国家的国际形象和信誉受到莫大损害。
    
    我这样说并非意味着教授、律师和维权工作者的生命比普通人更重要,一点也不是说名人不能打、老百姓随便打。我的意思是,如果一个集团开始动用黑社会手段殴打以说理为己任,以人权为诉求、以非暴力为信仰的维权工作者,那么它所针对的已经不是个人和个案,而是普遍的宪法原则,是中国作为联合国会员国所签署的一系列国际人权公约;它挑战的不是少数知识分子而是所有人的基本人权,它反对的不仅是老百姓而且是信守人权原则的中国政府;简单地说,是反对人权本身,再简单一点来说,是反人类。
    
    人权在中国,曾经是一个负面的词。 2004 年,当我去加拿大参加国际人权法教育项目时,我的儿子问我:妈妈,你要变成一个不同政见者吗?对于几代中国人,人权不是法律原则,而是各种妖魔鬼怪——右派、牛鬼蛇神、阶级敌人、开除公职、劳改、严刑拷打、审判、长期监禁、人见人怕、神经病、疯子、混蛋、过街老鼠、敏感、黑名单、内控、搞政治、找死、干脆用句广东话:行家铲,全家死光光、活埋。
    
    所有这类《狂人日记》中受害狂的想象,就是几代中国人对于人权的公共想象,这不是人们的错,是人权遭受迫害的经验遗留的公共记忆。这样的想象和记忆就是如今实现宪法所规定的"国家尊重和保障人权"的巨大障碍,也是所有那些围攻、跟踪、暴打维权工作者的人的动力。他们之所以能够大打出手,因为他们愿意信奉:维护人权者就是上述牛头马面,他们 / 她们该打、找打、打昏是运气、打死可能也不偿命。
    
    并且在昨天打完之后,打人者把郭飞雄先生的相机给他挂在脖子上,眼镜给他戴在脸上。这样的从容是要郭君明白,士可杀,亦可辱。郭君的生死荣辱,他们都可以玩弄于股掌之间。
    
    这就错了。
    
    这班打人的人来自一个特殊的系统,没有明显的标志,不告知他们的身份。来自民警的一个说法是"职能部门在执法",但对如此不文明的执法,民警不予干预。我对执法的职能部门缺乏了解,什么叫国安国保我也分辨不出。但有一点我希望提示在此,假如这一职能部门与国家保密有关的话,所有上述对维权者的人身攻击都是对该系统最高首长的攻击,都直接违背了最高首长的意志,而所有违法行为最终也必将受到法律追究。
    
    此话怎讲?
    
    现任国家保密局局长是谁?人权与宪政专家夏勇。夏勇何许人也?民权译丛主编,《民权公约评注》翻译小组首席译者。民权公约什么玩意?中华人民共和国于 1997 年和1998 年先后签署的人权两公约之一。公约说了个啥,你搞国家安全保卫或者保密者,你把最高首长亲自主编的书尽快列入本系统所有人员的必读书目,或者你把我的话拿去请首长指正:一个公约说的是国家应该管的事,一个公约说的是国家不应该管的事;前一个叫做《经济、社会和文化权利国际公约》,意思是国家保证让13 亿中国人在经济、社会和文化方面获得充分的参与和发展,一个公约叫做《公民权利和政治权利公约》,意思是保障个人自由不受国家侵犯,保障个人参与国家管理的民主权利。
    
    我对夏勇先生的崇敬自此译丛开始,尽管他和我职务不同,我把他看作自己尊敬的同行。他在"民权公约译丛总序"中所言——所有国安国保工作者都应该列入必读语录:
    
    
    
    "民众不享有政治权利,便没有合法的资格和力量去表达自己的意愿,维护自己的权益,尤其是去阻止别人,特别是公权者做侵害自己的事情。没有政治权利、便不能当家作主,即,不能当自己的家,不能做国家的主。""这样一来,倘若强势者偏偏借民之懿德而欺侮之,有权者悍然以我听为天听,以我视为天视,民众便只有由别人当家、求别人做主了,命运岂不悲哉?"
    
    
    
    你要说你文化不高,听这个听不懂,你就想想昨天一群人夜深人静虎视眈眈雄踞门外,当着派出所的面暴打郭飞雄先生的情形。
    
    这就叫"有权者悍然以我听为天听"。
    
    这就叫民众"命运岂不悲哉?"
    
    此问当是正月初七 2月 4日中国人日之天问,什么时候这一问在你这个悍然出拳暴打维权者的人内心响起,中国人就诞生了,中国人民就真正站起来了。
    
    还有一件小事,不能不提及:郭飞雄之挨打,是因为他反对跟踪者反复拍摄他的妻子和孩子。跟踪者你要是请教保密局最高首长夏勇先生,必会知道此举违反一系列国际人权条款,包括有关妇女和儿童权利的条款。尽管郭君的孩子一个才四岁、一个不过八岁,作为受尊重的个体和独立的社会公民,他/ 她们享有充分的人身自由权、自主权、隐私权和受保护的权利。
    
    再说了,跟踪者你既然肆无忌惮地拍郭君的孩子,为什么如此恼火郭君之反拍摄并要抢走胶卷呢?
    
    这就叫不负责任了。
    
    这也就叫掩耳盗铃了。
    
    据我所知,广州很多派出所门口是有监视器的,监控录像把所有打人的行为都拍下来了。这个录像也是不能私自销毁的,你去看看孙志刚案之审判经过就知道了;无论开初多少人罗织谎言,打开录像时,什么人出拳、什么人殴打、什么人参与指使,一个也跑不掉。这就叫天网恢恢,疏而不漏。
    
    前面说了很多,维权工作者不能打、不该打;最后简单说一点,维权工作者也不怕打。从全世界的例子来说,哪里的人权工作者因为挨打就退步了呢?如今在中国很多大学都成立了宪法和人权研究中心,人权教育正在普及。建立全球共同的人权文化会成为公民教育的基础,不久的将来,也有会有全国性的人权委员会建立;这样的机制会专门受理包括维权工作者在内的人权受侵害案例,人权终会有机制性的保障。
    
    这一天正在来到,你们这些殴打维权工作者的人,在这个人权建设的大潮前,真该重新审视自己的位置呢。人权保护不仅今天保护弱势群体、保护和他们 / 她们站在一起的人,也保护你们这些人啊,你们谁又不是人生父母养的?谁没有亲戚朋友在贫困线上挣扎、找不到好工作、打不起官司、任权利被宰割。维权工作者今天是别人的朋友,明天也是你的朋友,今天你不打他/ 她,明天你不被法律追究,可以享有平安的生活免于牢狱之祸。你犯不着为暴力殉葬,因为你们这些人都还年轻,值得过理想的、有尊严的生活。作为一个经历了文革的人,我亲眼看到过很多在文革中打人的人后来在调查真相时受到追究;就算逃过法网,深夜你扪心自问,能逃过内心审判吗?
    
    何况维权工作者不仅受中国宪法保护,而且受联合国人权文件的保护。以下将这份联合国文件《人权捍卫者宣言》中英文附录于此,给各地从事维权活动的朋友拜个晚年,也与朋友们共勉。
    
    
    
    写于2006 年2 月5 日,中国人日第二天
    
    
    
    附录:
    
    《人权捍卫者宣言》简介
    
      《人权捍卫者宣言》于1998年12月9日被联合国大会采用,是联合国第一份承认人权捍卫者工作的重要性以及承认给予开展保护人权运动更好保护的需要的文件。
    
    《宣言》包含了人权活动者的权利条款,以及在国家保证这些权利时应履行的义务。另外,《宣言》包括了人权捍卫者的责任的条款,以及其他能够影响人权实现的人的责任。
    
      《人权捍卫者宣言》在联合国大会的所有185名成员国适用。作为一部《宣言》,它对这些国家没有法律的约束力。然而,它对联合国成员国有极大的道德权威,因为这些国家都一致同意《宣言》的所有条款。它反映了国家意图遵守的规范,即使国家不必这样做。
    
      通常,宣言会发展为公约,即成为一部国家正式签署和认可的具有法律约束力的文件。在这种情况下,国家能够真正的承担贯彻该公约包含的条款,就像国家签署了一个合同,而不是仅仅表达他们希望这个规范能够执行。《人权捍卫者宣言》将非常有希望获得相应的地位,成为《人权捍卫者公约》。
    
    然而,仅仅是《宣言》的存在已经是非常重要了。它表达了国家已经接受了有关保护人权捍卫者的国际规范,即使国家还没有像签署和认可条约或公约一样签署和认可《宣言》。国家已经在精神上接受《宣言》的约束即使他们的实践没有必要与《宣言》的条款相一致。
    
    
    人权捍卫者宣言
    
    
    
    (正式名称为关于个人、社会组织、机构促进和保护普遍承认的人权和基本自由的权利和责任的宣言 )
    
    
    
    序言:
    
    (联合国)大会全体成员:
    
    
    
    再次重申,遵守联合国宪章的宗旨和原则以促进和保护世界上所有国家和人民的人权和基本自由是非常重要的。
    
    
    
    再次重申,世界人权宣言和人权的国际公约在促进对人权和基本自由的尊重和施行上,它们是最基本的国际手段,起着非常重要的作用;同时,在联合国体系内及一些区域性组织中适用的其他保护人权的方式也是很重要的。
    
    
    
    在此强调,国际社会的所有成员,不论共同的还是个别的都要承担他们庄严的责任来推动和鼓励对人权和基本自由的尊严,而不能有任何种类的差别对待。不因为种族、肤色、性别、语言、宗教、政治或其他观点、国籍、社会地位、财产、出生或其他情况的不同而区别对待;尤其要强调根据联合国宪章通过国际上的协作来完成这一义务的重要性。
    
    
    
    在有效消除各种对民族和个人的人权和基本自由的侵犯上,通过国际合作,无数个人、团体、协会都起到了非常重要的作用,这是应当值得肯定的,同时,他们在防止大规模的、有计划的侵权方面也做出了巨大的贡献,如种族隔离政策,各种种族歧视、殖民主义、外国占有和支配,对国家主权,国家统一或领土完整的侵犯或威胁,拒绝承认民族自决权,对民族自主支配其财富和自然资源的阻碍所造成的侵权等。
    
    
    
    我们要充分认识到国际和平与安全,人权和基本自由的享有存在着密切的联系,也要注意虽然国际和平与安全还未完全实现,但不能忽略推动人权和基本自由的发展的任务。
    
    
    
    在此重申,所有的人权和基本自由都是普遍存在不可分割的,他们互相联系,互相影响,应该以公正平等的方式对等和实施,对任何一种权利和自由都不应有任何偏见。
    
    
    
    再次强调推动和保护人权和基本自由是国家的基本责任和义务。
    
    
    
    个人、团体、机构都有权利和责任去促进对人权和基本自由的尊重,增加在这方面的知识,不论是在国家内部还是在国际上。
    
    
    
    在此宣言::
    
    
    
    第 1条
    
    每一个人,无论单独的还是与他人联合,无论是在国内还是国际上,都有权为推动人权和基本自由的保护和实现而斗争。
    
    
    
    第 2条
    
    1. 每个国家都负有基本的责任和义务来保护、推动和实施所有的人权和基本自由,这可以通过各种方式来实现。有必要在社会、经济、政治以及其他领域创造各种条件,实施法律保障,使所有人、单独的或是团体成员在一起的,都能够在这种司法管辖下实际地享有这些权利和自由。
    
    2. 每个国家都应当采取这些立法的、行政的、及其他必要措施,切实保证本宣言所指出的各种权利和自由都能够实现。
    
    
    
    第 3款
    
    人权和基本自由是通过法律框架来实施和享有的,这种法律框架是由符合联合国宪章的国内法及国家在人权和基本自由领域所承担的其他国际义务所构成的。本宣言所提到的所有对这些权利和自由的促进、保护和有效地实现也都是在此框架下实施的。
    
    
    
    第 4款
    
    本宣言的任何部分都不得被解释为是对联合国宗旨和原则的缩减或违背,也不得被解释为是对世界人权宣言、国际人权公约和其他在此领域的国际协议的限制或损害。
    
    
    
    第 5款
    
    为了促进和保护人权和基本自由的发展,每个人,无论单独的或团结其他成员,不论在国内或国际,都有权:
    
    (a) 和平地聚会或集会;
    
    (b) 组织、加入或参加非政府组织、协会或团体;
    
    (c) 与非政府或政府间组织进行交流。
    
    
    
    第 6款
    
    每个人都有权单独地或与他人联合:
    
    (a) 了解、寻求、获取、接收、掌握所有关于人权和基本自由的信息,包括这些权利和自由是如何在国内立法、司法或行政体系中具体实施的。
    
    (b) 正如在人权和其他可应用的国际文件规定的一样,可以自由印刷、教授、传播关于人权和基本自由的观点、信息和知识。
    
    (c) 对如何在法律上和实践中具体实现人权和基本自由,进行学习、讨论,形成各种观点,通过这些及其他一些适当方式来引起公众对这些问题的关注。
    
    
    
    第 7条
    
    每个人,无论是单独还是与他人联合,都有权讨论和形成新的关于人权的观点,并且促使它们为人们所接受。
    
    
    
    第 8条
    
    1.每个人,无论单独的还是与他人联合,都有权在非歧视的基础上,有效地接触并参加一国政府并且参与公共事务。
    
    2.这包括,无论个人或与他人联合,都有权在公共事务上向政府机构、办事处或组织提出批评和建议,使他们提高效率;并且当他们工作的任何方面阻碍了人权和基本自由的发展、保护和实现时,提请他们注意。
    
    
    
    第 9条
    
    1. 在人权和基本自由的实践过程中,包括本宣言提到的人权的发展和保护过程中,每个人,无论单独的还是与他人联合,都应该能够从有效的补救措施中受益,并且在这些权利受到侵犯时能够得到保护。
    
    2.在此方面,任何一个宣称自己的权利或自由被侵犯的个人,都有权亲自或通过其法定代表向适当的司法机构或依法建立的其他机构申诉,并依法从这样的机构获得一个裁决,按其权利和自由实际被侵犯的程度,包括适当的赔偿;对裁决的执行情况会立即在其后召开的一个独立、公正的听证会上进行审查;不允许有不当的延误。
    
    3. 同时,任何人不论单独地或与他人联合,都有权:
    
    (a) 当单个公务员或政府机构做出了侵犯人权和基本自由的政策和行动时,可以就此申诉或其他恰当的方式并提交给适当的国内司法、行政及立法机构或国家法律授权的其他机构。这些机构应当对此申诉作出裁决而不应当有不当的延误。
    
    (b) 旁听听证会、诉讼和审判,判断他们是否符合国内法及国际法上应承担的义务。
    
    (c) 在捍卫人权和基本自由过程中为其提供专业的法律援助或其他相关建议和帮助。
    
    4. 同时,根据可以获得的国际方式和步骤,每个人,无论是单独地或与他人联合,都有权无障碍的与国际机构就人权和基本自由进行接触或交流,无论这些国际机构有一般权限或特殊权限。
    
    5. 无论何时当有理由认为在一国管辖下有对人权和基本自由的侵犯现象发生时,国家应当立即对其进行公正的调查或审查。
    
    
    
    第 10条
    
    任何人都不得参与侵犯人权和基本自由的活动,并且任何人都不能因为不参与这些活动而受到惩罚。
    
    
    
    第 11条
    
    每个人,无论单独地或与他人联合,都有权从事合法的工作或职业。如果一个人从事的工作会影响到他的尊严、人权和基本自由,他应当尊重这些权利和自由,使自己的工作行为符合此项工作的相关国内和国际处理方式和道德标准。
    
    
    
    第 12条
    
    1. 每个人无论单独地或与他人联合,都有权参加反对侵犯人权和基本自由的和平活动。
    
    2. 当每个人,无论单独地或与他人联合,在合法实践本宣言所指出的各项权利,而受到任何暴力、威胁、报复,在实际上或法律上的任何歧视、压力或其他压迫行为时,国家应当通过适当机构来采取必要措施以制止这些行为。当每个人,无论单独地或与他人联合,在通过和平方式反对和抗议影响了人权和基本自由享有的活动和行为时,包括那些由于政府的忽略而造成的对人权和基本自由的侵犯以及那些团体或个人的暴力行为,都有权受到国内法律地有效保护。
    
    
    
    第 13条
    
    每个人,无论单独地或与他人联合,为了促进和保护人权和基本自由的发展,都有权根据本宣言第三条,通过和平的方式来征集、接收和使用资源。
    
    
    
    第 14条
    
    1. 国家有责任采取立法的、司法的、行政的或其他适当的方式来增进在其司法管辖下的所有人在公民、政治、经济、社会和文化权利方面的相互理解。
    
    2. 这些方式应当包括,通过:
    
    (a) 国家法律法规以及可适用的基本国际人权保护方式的公布和广泛传播;
    
    (b) 人权方面的国际文件的全面公开,包括由国家向其加入的人权公约所设机构的定期报告,以及这些机构的官方报告和会议记录。
    
    3. 当在一国司法管辖下有更多促进和保护人权和基本自由的独立机构建立时,无论它们是调查机构、人权协会或其他形式的国内机构,国家都应当以适当的方式保证和支持它们的建立和发展。
    
    
    
    第 15条
    
    国家有责任在其教育的各个阶段促进对人权和基本自由的教学,同时在培训律师、法律执行官员、军队成员及公共官员时应当开设人权课程。
    
    
    
    第 16条
    
    个人、非政府组织及相关机构应当通过教育、培训、研究等活动,使公众更加注意到人权和基本自由的问题,致力于增强国家间,各种族间,宗教阿团体间的相互理解和包容,发展和平友好的关系,增进不同社会、团体背景下人们的互相谅解,这样人权活动者的目的才可以达到。
    
    
    
    第 17条
    
    每个人,无论单独的还是与他人联合,在具体实践本宣言所涉及到的权利和自由时,都应当仅受以下限制:国际义务所规定的限制,以及为了保障对他们权利和自由的承认和尊重,为了符合一个民主社会的道德要求,公共秩序和共同繁荣而制定的法律所规定的限制。
    
    
    
    第 18 条
    
    1. 每个人都有责任为建设一个能够全面自由发展人的个性的社会而努力。
    
    2. 个人、团体、机构以及非政府组织在捍卫民主、促进人权和基本自由发展,推动民主的社会、机构和程序的发展方面都负有责任,应当发挥重要的作用。
    
    3.同样的,他们也有责任和义务推动一种社会秩序和国际秩序的建立,使全球人权宣言中所涉及到的权利和自由以及其他人权方式都能够得到全面的实现。
    
    
    
    第19条
    
    任何个人、团体、社会机构或国家都不得曲解本宣言的内容,做出损害本宣言所涉及的权利和自由的行为。
    
    
    
    第 20条
    
    同时国家也不得曲解本宣言来支持个人、团体、机构或非政府组织做出违背联合国宪章的行为。
    
    
    
    © 版权 1998
    
    联合国人权高级专员办公室
    
    日内瓦 , 瑞士
    
    
    
    declaration of human Rights defenders
    from the united Nations
    (formally known as the declaration on the Right and Responsibility of individuals, Groups and organs of society to promote and protect universally Recognized human Rights and fundamental freedoms)
    
    preamble
    
    the General assembly,
    
    Reaffirming the importance of the observance of the purposes and principles of the charter of the united Nations for the promotion and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms for all persons in all countries of the world,
    
    Reaffirming the importance of the universal declaration of human Rights and the international covenants on human Rights as basic elements of international efforts to promote universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms and the importance of other human rights instruments adopted within the united Nations system, as well as those at the regional level,
    
    stressing that all members of the international community shall fulfill, jointly and separately, their solemn obligation to promote and encourage respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction of any kind, including distinctions based on race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status, and reaffirming the particular importance of achieving international cooperation to fulfill this obligation according to the charter of the united Nations,
    
    acknowledging the important role of international cooperation for and the valuable work of individuals, groups and associations in contributing to the effective elimination of all violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms of peoples and individuals, including in relation to mass, flagrant or systematic violations such as those resulting from apartheid, all forms of racial discrimination, colonialism, foreign domination or occupation, aggression or threats to national sovereignty, national unity or territorial integrity, and from refusal to recognize the right of peoples to self-determination and the right of every people to exercise full sovereignty over its wealth and natural resources,
    
    Recognizing the relationship between international peace and security and the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms, and mindful that the absence of international peace and security does not excuse non-compliance,
    
    Reiterating that all human rights and fundamental freedoms are universal, indivisible and interdependent and interrelated, and should be promoted and implemented in a fair and equitable manner, without prejudice to the implementation of each of these rights and freedoms,
    
    stressing that the primary responsibility and duty to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms lie with the state,
    
    Recognizing the right and the responsibility of individuals, groups and associations to promote respect for, and foster knowledge of, human rights and fundamental freedoms at the national and international levels,
    
    declares:
    
    article 1
    
    Everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, to promote and to strive for the protection and realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms at the national and international levels.
    
    article 2
    
    1. Each state has a prime responsibility and duty to protect, promote and implement all human rights and fundamental freedoms, inter alia by adopting such steps as may be necessary to create all conditions necessary in the social, economic, political as well as other fields and the legal guarantees required to ensure that all persons under its jurisdiction, individually and in association with others, are able to enjoy all these rights and freedoms in practice.
    
    2. Each state shall adopt such legislative, administrative and other steps as may be necessary to ensure that the rights and freedoms referred to in this declaration are effectively guaranteed.
    
    article 3
    
    domestic law consistent with the charter of the united Nations and other international obligations of the state in the field of human rights and fundamental freedoms is the juridical framework within which human rights and fundamental freedoms should be implemented and enjoyed, and within which all activities referred to in this declaration for the promotion, protection and effective realization of those rights and freedoms should be conducted.
    
    article 4
    
    Nothing in the present declaration shall be construed as impairing or contradicting the purposes and principles of the charter of the united Nations nor as restricting or derogating from the provisions of the universal declaration of human Rights, the international covenants on human Rights and other international instruments and commitments applicable in this field.
    
    article 5
    
    for the purpose of promoting and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms, everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, at the national and international levels:
    
    (a) to meet or assemble peacefully;
    
    (b) to form, join and participate in non-governmental organizations, associations or groups;
    
    (c) to communicate with non-governmental or intergovernmental organizations.
    
    article 6
    
    Everyone has the right, individually and in association with others:
    
    (a) to know, seek, obtain, receive and hold information about all human rights and fundamental freedoms, including having access to information as to how these rights and freedoms are given effect in domestic legislative, judicial or administrative systems;
    
    (b) as provided in human rights and other applicable international instruments, freely to publish, impart or disseminate to others views, information and knowledge of all human rights and fundamental freedoms;
    
    (c) to study, discuss, form and hold opinions on the observance, both in law and practice, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms and, through these and other appropriate means, to draw public attention to these matters.
    
    article 7
    
    Everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, to develop and discuss new human rights ideas and principles, and to advocate their acceptance.
    
    article 8
    
    1. Everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, to have effective access, on a non-discriminatory basis, to participation in the government of one's country and in the conduct of public affairs.
    
    2. this includes, inter alia, the right, individually and in association with others, to submit to governmental bodies and agencies and organizations concerned with public affairs, criticism and proposals for improving their functioning and to draw attention to any aspect of their work which may hinder or impede the promotion, protection and realization of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
    
    article 9
    
    1. in the exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms, including the promotion and protection of human rights as referred to in this declaration, everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, to benefit from an effective remedy and to be protected in the event of violation of these rights.
    
    2. to this end, everyone whose rights or freedoms are allegedly violated, has the right, either in person or through legally authorized representation, to complain to and competent judicial or other authority established by law, and to obtain from such an authority a decision, in accordance with law, providing redress, including any compensation due, where there has been a violation of that person's rights or freedoms; as well as enforcement of the eventual decision have that complaint promptly reviewed in a public hearing before an independent, impartial and award; all without undue delay.
    
    3. to the same end, everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, inter alia:
    
    (a) to complain about the policies and actions of individual officials and governmental bodies with regard to violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms by petitions or other appropriate means to competent domestic judicial, administrative or legislative authorities or any other competent authority provided for by the legal system of the state, which should render their decision on the complaint without undue delay;
    
    (b) to attend public hearings, proceedings and trials, to form an opinion on their compliance with national law and applicable international obligations and commitments;
    
    (c) to offer and provide professionally qualified legal assistance or other relevant advice and assistance in defending human rights and fundamental freedoms.
    
    4. to the same end, and in accordance with applicable international instruments and procedures, everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, to unhindered access to and communication with international bodies with general or special competence to receive and consider communications on matters of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
    
    5. the state shall conduct a prompt and impartial investigation or ensure that an inquiry takes place whenever there is reasonable ground to believe that a violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms has occurred in any territory under its jurisdiction.
    
    article 10
    
    No one shall participate, by act or failure to act where required, in violating human rights and fundamental freedoms, and no one shall be subjected to punishment or adverse action of any kind for refusing to do so.
    
    
    
    article 11
    
    Everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, to the lawful exercise of his or her occupation or profession. Everyone who, as a result of his or her profession, can affect the human dignity, human rights and fundamental freedoms of others should respect those rights and freedoms and comply with relevant national and international standards of occupational and professional conduct or ethics.
    
    article 12
    
    1. Everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, to participate in peaceful activities against violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
    
    2. the state shall take all necessary measures to ensure the protection by the competent authorities of everyone, individually and in association with others, against any violence, threats, retaliation, de facto or de jure adverse discrimination, pressure or any other arbitrary action as a consequence of their legitimate exercise of the rights referred to in this declaration. in this connection, everyone is entitled, individually and in association with others, to be effectively protected under national law in reacting against or opposing, through peaceful means, activities and acts, including those by omission, attributable to states which result in violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms as well as acts of violence perpetrated by groups or individuals that affect the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
    
    article 13
    
    Everyone has the right, individually and in association with others, to solicit, receive and utilize resources for the express purpose of promoting and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms, through peaceful means, in accordance with article 3 of this declaration.
    
    article 14
    
    1. the state has the responsibility to take legislative, judicial, administrative or other appropriate measures to promote the understanding by all persons under its jurisdiction of their civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights.
    
    2. such measures shall include, inter alia:
    
    (a) the publication and widespread availability of national laws and regulations and of applicable basic international human rights instruments;
    
    (b) full and equal access to international documents in the field of human rights, including the state's periodic reports to the bodies established by the international human rights treaties to which it is a party, as well as the summary records of discussions and the official reports of these bodies.
    
    3. the state shall ensure and support, where appropriate, the creation and development of further independent national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms in all territory under its jurisdiction, whether they be ombudsmen, human rights commissions or any other form of national institutions.
    
    article 15
    
    the state has the responsibility to promote and facilitate the teaching of human rights and fundamental freedoms at all levels of education, and to ensure that all those responsible for training lawyers, law enforcement officers, the personnel of the armed forces and public officials include appropriate elements of human rights teaching in their training programme.
    
    article 16
    
    individuals, non-governmental organizations and relevant institutions have an important role in contributing to making the public more aware of questions relating to all human rights and fundamental freedoms through activities such as education, training and research in these areas to further strengthen, inter alia, understanding, tolerance, peace and friendly relations among nations and amongst all racial and religious groups, bearing in mind the various backgrounds of societies and communities, in which they carry out their activities.
    
    article 17
    
    in the exercise of the rights and freedoms referred to in this declaration, everyone, acting individually and in association with others, shall be subject only to such limitations as are in accordance with applicable international obligations and are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality, public order and the general welfare in a democratic society.
    
    article 18
    
    1. Everyone has duties towards and within the community in which alone the free and full development of his or her personality is possible.
    
    2. individuals, groups, institutions and non-governmental organizations have an important role to play and a responsibility in safeguarding democracy, promoting human rights and fundamental freedoms and contributing to the promotion and advancement of democratic societies, institutions and processes.
    
    3. Likewise, they have an important role and a responsibility in contributing, as appropriate, to the promotion of the right of everyone to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in the universal declaration of human Rights and other human rights instruments can be fully realized.
    
    article 19
    
    Nothing in the present declaration shall be interpreted as implying for any individual, group or organ of society or any state the right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of the rights and freedoms referred to in this declaration.
    
    article 20
    
    Nor shall anything in the present declaration be interpreted as permitting states to support and promote activities of individuals, groups of individuals, institutions or non-governmental organizations contrary to the provisions of the charter of the united Nations.
    
    source: office of the united Nations high commissioner for human Rights. (1999). available from: http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/(symbol)/a.REs.53.144.En?opendocument. (博讯 boxun.com)
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