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达赖啦嘛论西藏文明文化和历史
请看博讯热点:西藏问题

(博讯北京时间2009年9月21日 转载)
    
    达赖啦嘛论西藏文明文化和历史
     (博讯 boxun.com)

    郭国汀编译
    
    达赖啦嘛到底说了什么,做了什么?绝大多数国人对此几乎一无所知。兹根据达赖啦嘛五十年西藏起义纪念日讲话,归纳整理他论西藏文明文化和历史供有兴趣的读者参考。必须指出的是,在1979年以前,达赖始终主张西藏独立,此后回应邓小平提出的“除了独自,任何事情皆可讨论”的信息,出于政治现实考量,达赖啦嘛采纳了妥协思路开始提出中间道路方案。自2002年始西藏流亡政府业与中共先后谈判八次,但未取得任何实质性进展。西藏问题的和平解决,不但关系到六百万西藏人民的前途与命运,也牵涉到13亿中国人民的和平未来,因此事关每个中国人及子孙后代切身长远根本利益。南国以为正义,公平,公道,和平理性应当成为和解中国与西藏民族争端的基本原则。“ 不可调和的民族茅盾是国家产生的根本原因”,而汉族与藏族之间并没有不可调和的茅盾,若不及时彻底终结中共极权暴政,愚蠢无知的中共很可能逼迫藏族独立。
    
    2009年9月20日第185个反中共极权专制暴政争自由人权民主绝食争权抗暴民权运动日
    
    必须基于公元823年西藏和中国明智的统治者订立的协议确立的,雕刻在拉萨石柱上的原则。该协议明定:‘西藏人将幸福地生活于伟大的西藏土地上,中国人将幸福地生活于伟大的中国土地上’。[1]
    
    虽然西藏在科技或物质进步方面不先进,然而它是个拥有二千多年历史,文化丰富的国家。由于丰富文化遗产的力量,西藏人民是天然幸福和乐天知命的民族,因而构成了人类大家庭的一个独特的社会。[2]在西藏,我们对技术和经济的关注远远不足,今天我们意识到这是一种错误[3]。
    
    对我而言,西藏民族不仅是文明的民族,而且是拥有真实内在力量的民族。[4]
    
    西藏人民独特身份一个主要理由乃是我们的文化遗产。因此,我们必须承认我们自已的语言,文学和传统,包括我们的衣着方式的重要性。[5]
    
    西藏文化是一种活的文明。西藏文化作为一种活的传统富于含义和意义。如今我们的文化正在受到严重的威胁,我期望越多的人们了解西藏,他们也就越能帮助拯救保护她。近年来,西藏的文化遭受到巨大的破坏。与中国本身的情况不一样,西藏文化的破坏远在文化大革命前便已开始,但是文革疯狂期间给了我们毁灭性的一击。超过六千座我们的寺院和寺庙被摧毁,事实上我们所有最珍贵的艺术品全部毁于一旦。无价的珍宝被捣毁,金像被溶化,几个世纪以前用黄金装饰的手稿被焚毁。我们的寺院是藏书丰富的寺学院,由于干燥的气侯,寺院中珍藏着成千上万保荐完好的珍贵罕版图书,其中绝大多数业已被毁。[6]
    
    我真诚地相信我们丰富的文化和灵性不仅能有益于亿万中国人,而且亦能丰富中国本身。[7]
    
    在学校削减西藏语言的使用的新举措被引入。在拉萨的西藏大学甚至在西藏语系教授西藏历史时也被强迫使用中文。1980年在班禅啦嘛积极鼓励和支持下建立的西藏语实验中学亦被强行关闭。[8]
    
    文化艺术和传统的破坏伴随而来的大规模中国移民至西藏构成文化灭绝。西藏问题是政治性的问题。它是殖民统治问题:中华人民共和国压迫西藏及西藏人民反抗该统治。此种问题唯有通过谈判,而非象中国采取的通过暴力,威胁和人口移民方式能够解决。[9]
    
    文化灭绝正在有意或无意犯下。[10]
    
    业已明显北京正在西藏执行构成故意文化灭绝政策。[11]
    
    中国的领导人几十年来,甚至在共产主义革命之前,一直宣传某种不真实的“自助式“的西藏历史和西藏与中国关系的版本。[12]
    
    西藏拥有久的历史,我们的国家从来不是其他国家的一部分,与我们的邻国拥有良好的关系,但是我们从未与任何其他国家合并或被某个国家兼并。各种军队曾侵犯过西藏,但均被击退或在与我们签署协议后撤离。当共产党中国的军队于1949年直接违反国际法侵犯我们时,西藏是一个独立国家。新成立的共产党北京政府强迫西藏签署了一份“和平解放西藏的协议”。[13]
    
    中国的蒙古统治者的影响首次在西藏感受。此后,在满族皇帝统治期间,中国开始干预西藏事务。然而那时汉族中国人自身首先在蒙古族,后来在满族的统治下。元朝的蒙古族统治终止。满族统治本身被中国1911年革命推翻,此后,在中国成立了一个共和政府。同时,在推翻满族统治后,西藏宣布了她的独立。然而,有些国家由于他们的领土野心,订立了数个协定称中国是西藏的宗主国。这些协定既不包含真实也未说明客观现实,这从订立这些协定前后的方式明显可见。中国暴力侵占西藏及他们强迫西藏人签署17条协议,被西藏人坚决清楚地向全世界公布。此外,查看西藏历史的任何期间,我们均知道西藏是作为一个既存的独立国家。[14]
    
    西藏作为一个独特和独自的实体存续了两千多年。对此事实无可否认。历史就是历史,没有人能够改变过去,但只能接受事实。我相信最好让历史学家和法律专家去决定西藏的历史地位。不考虑过去的历史,我注重未来。[15]
    
    有些人坚持西藏独立的目标。也有些人批评我的立场造成分裂和困扰了我们的人民。我能理解日前增加的批评,因为中国拒绝建设性地回应我的中间路线方案。此外,绝大多数西藏人民无疑在他们的心中独立是他们的历史和合法的权利。[16]
    
    从历史上看及根据国际法西藏是一个被中国占领的独立国家。然而,在过去的15年期间,我业已采纳和解妥协的中间道路方案,旨在寻求一种和平协商方法解决西藏问题。[17]
    
    西藏是一个有一千多年历史的独立国家,我相信西藏人民有权追求独立。[18]
    
    然而,西藏如今在中国的统治下也是一个政治现实。因此,为了寻找一个相互都能接受的解决,我正在试图用中间道路方案解决该问题。我的方案也是回应邓小平的信息“任何事除了独立之外均可以讨论”。据此,在过去的15年间,我们派出了六个正式代表团访问北京和西藏,我的私人代表至少访问中国十次以上。我还向中国政府提出过多个建议方案。这些建议方案在众多有声望的国际论坛上也公布于众,以示我的严肃和真诚。[19]
    
    今日之现实乃是西藏是一个在殖民统治下的被占领的国家。这一实质问题必须寻求通过谈判解决。[20]
    
    (西藏的法律地位)最好让历史学家和法律专家去作客观研究并作出他们的裁决。[21]
    
    他们(中共)宣称我们的努力旨在恢复西藏旧社会的制度和达赖啦嘛的特权地位。就达赖啦嘛制度而言,我早在1969年便公开宣布达赖啦嘛制度是否存续应由西藏人民决定。就我个人而言,我在1992年便在一份正式政策中宣布,当我们回到西藏后,我在未来西藏政府中不再担任任何职务。此外,无论是海内外,任何西藏人均无意恢复西藏旧的社会制度。[22]
    
    我们的中国朋友们当他们与我们接触时有同样的感受。中国政府称我们为“反动叛乱匪帮”,“奴隶主”,“分裂分子”。[23]没有西藏人有兴趣恢复过时的政治社会制度。我曾多次说过,即便继续达赖啦嘛的制度也由人民决定。[24]
    
    中国领导人拒绝相信我不是寻求分裂而是为西藏人民追求真实的自治。他们公开指控我撒谎[25]。我的方案设想西藏人民在中华人民共和国框架内享受真实的自治。此种互利的解决有助于中国的稳定和统一,他们的两个最重要优先考虑的事,与此同时西藏人民能确实保存他们自已的文明和保护西藏高原脆弱的自然生态环境的基本权利。[26]
    
    我们寻求在相互尊重和互利的基础上与中国持久的关系。我们寻求与中国某种持久友好的关系。我们不寻求与中国为敌。如果我们选择留在一个国家内,我们将象真正的兄弟姐妹那样共同生活。如果我们选择独立,我们将成为好邻居。与中国之间持久良好关系应当永远成为西藏的最优先考虑。有关相互能接受的西藏问题的解决方案,我的立场非常直接了当。我不寻求独立。正如我此前多次提及的那样,我所寻求的乃是为西藏人民获得真正自治的机会,以便保护他们的文明和独特的西藏文化,宗教,语言和生活方式得以发展和兴旺。我主要考虑的乃是确保西藏人民和他们自已独特佛教文化遗产的生存。为此目的,正如过去的几十年已经清楚地表明,最重要的乃是西藏人民能够处理他们自已的国内事务并自由地决定他们的社会,经济和文化的发展。[27]
    
    中国政府不尊重西藏的文化,宗教,和传统;它拒绝给西藏真实的自治权;它的宣传努力将西藏描绘成“世界上最野蛮,最落后,最黑暗的地区,而它对西藏的高度迫害则导致数百万西藏人离心离德。中国政府的行为引起了那些看透其大汉族主义和殖民主义的西藏人的愤怒。因此公正地说,中国政府的西藏政策正在将西藏从中国分离出去[28]。
    
    但是如果中国继续剥削西藏人和压迫西藏人民,西藏人将继续抗争将他们自已从中国解放出来。[29]
    
    
    
    [1] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 41st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 1990 “It must also be based on the principles which the wise rulers of Tibet and China laid down in a treaty as early as 823 A.D., engraved on the stone pillar in Lhasa. Among other things the treaty says, "Tibetans will live happily in the great land of Tibet, and the Chinese will live happily in the great land of China". ”
    
    [2] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 22st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 1981 “Although Tibet was not advanced in terms of scientific, technological or material progress, yet it is a nation rich in culture and having a history of more than two thousand years. By the power of this rich cultural heritage, the Tibetans are naturally a happy and well-adjusted people, thus forming a distinct society in the family of man. ”
    
    [3] Dalai Lamas Statement at the Smithsonian Institution's Sackler Gallery, Washington, D.C.2 September 1995“ In Tibet, we paid much too little attention to technological and economic development, and today we realize that this was a mistake.”
    
    [4] Remarks by His Holiness the Dalai Lama to the Members of the United States Congress in the Rotunda of the Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C.18 April 1991“Its seems to me that the Tibetan nation is not only a civilized one, but also one that possesses genuine inner strength.”
    
    [5] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 27st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 1986 “One of the main reasons for the distinctive identity of the Tibetan people is our cultural heritage. We must, therefore, recognize the importance and the value of our own language, literature, and traditions, including our way of dressing. ”
    
    [6] Dalai Lamas Statement at the Smithsonian Institution's Sackler Gallery, Washington, D.C.2 September 1995 “Tibet culture is a living civilization.Tibetan culture as a living tradition rich in meaning and significance. Now our cultures severely threatened, and I am hopeful that the more people know about Tibet, the more they will wish to help save it.In recent years, the culture of Tibet has undergone immense destruction. Unlike the case of China proper, the destruction of Tibetan culture began well before tile Cultural Revolution, but this period of madness dealt us a crushing blow. More than 6000 of our monasteries and temples were razed and practically all of the finest examples of our arts were destroyed. Priceless treasures were smashed. Gold was melted down. Illuminated manuscripts dating back centuries were burned. Our monasteries were monastic colleges with extensive libraries and.because of our dry climate, hundreds of thousands of rare books were preserved in them. Most of these are now gone. ”
    
    [7] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 41st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 2000“ I sincerely believe that our rich culture and spirituality not only can benefit millions of Chinese but can also enrich China itself.”
    
    [8] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 38th, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 1997 “New measures to curtail the use of the Tibetan language in schools were introduced. The Tibet University in Lhasa has been compelled to teach even Tibetan history in the Chinese language at the Tibetan Language Department. Experimental Tibetan language middle schools, established in the 1980s with the active encouragement and support of the late Panchen Lama, are being closed down.”
    
    [9] Statement of Dalai Lama to the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Danish Parliament Hearing on Tibet Copenhagen, May 13, 1996 “The destruction of cultural artefacts and traditions coupled with the mass influx of Chinese into Tibet amount to cultural genocide. the issue of Tibet is political. It is an issue of colonial rule: the oppression of Tibet by the People's Republic of China and resistance to that rule by the people of Tibet. This issue can be resolved only through negotiations and not, as China would have it, through force, intimidation, and population transfer. ”
    
    [10] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 34th, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 1993 “Cultural genocide is being committed, intentionally or unintentionally.”
    
    [11] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 39th. Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 1998 “it has become apparent that Beijing is carrying out what amounts to a deliberate policy of cultural genocide in Tibet.”
    
    [12] Statement of Dalai Lama to the Foreign Affairs Committee of the Danish Parliament Hearing on Tibet Copenhagen, May 13, 1996 “China's leaders have for decades, even before the Communist revolution, propagated a false and self-serving version of the history of Tibet and of Tibet-China relations.”
    
    [13] ibid “Tibet has a long history, in which our country was never a part of another country had good relations with our neighbors, but we were never united with any other country or annexed by one. Armies invaded Tibet but were repelled or left after signing treaties with us. Tibet was an independent state when the Communist Chinese army invaded our country in 1949, in direct violation of international law. The newly installed Communist government in Beijing forced Tibetans to sign a treaty for the "peaceful liberation of Tibet."”
    
    [14] Statement of His Holiness the Dalai Lama on the Fourteenth Anniversary of the Tibetan National Uprising Day on march 1973 “the influence of the Mongol rulers of China was first felt in Tibet. After this, during the time of the Manchu emperors China began interfering in the affairs of Tibet. However at that time the Han Chinese themselves were under the domination of at first the Mongols and then the Manchus. The Yuan dynasty of the Mongols came to an end. The Manchus themselves were overthrown by the Chinese revolution of 1911, after which a republican government was established in China. At the same time, after the overthrow of the Manchus, Tibet declared its independence. However some countries because of their territorial ambitions, concluded several treaties which stated that Tibet was under the suzerainty of China. That these treaties contain neither truth nor they tell the objective reality can clearly be seen from the way earlier and later treaties were made. The violent aggression of the Chinese into Tibet and the way they forced the Tibetans to sign the 17-point Agreement was emphatically and clearly publicized by the Tibetans to the whole world. Besides, looking at any period of Tibetan history, we know that Tibet existed as an independent nation. ”
    
    [15] Statement of His Holiness the Dalai Lama on the Forty-Second Anniversary of the Tibetan National Uprising Day on March 10, 2001 “Tibet had been existing as a distinct and separate entity for over two thousand years. There is no denying of this fact. History is history and no one can change the past but to accept the facts. I believe that it is best for historians and legal experts to decide on the historical status of Tibet. Irrespective of past history, I am looking towards the future. ”
    
    [16] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 42st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 2001 “There are those who hold firmly to the goal of independence of Tibet. There is also criticism that my position is causing division and confusion among our people. I can understand the increasing criticism because China refuses to constructively respond to my “Middle-Way Approach”. Moreover, the overwhelming majority of the Tibetan people have no doubts in their hearts and minds that independence is their historical and legitimate right.”
    
    [17] Statement Of His Holiness the Dalai Lamato Hearing on Tibet by The Foreign Affairs Committee Bundestag (German Parliament) – Bonn 19 June, 1995 “Historically and according to international law Tibet is an independent country under Chinese occupation. However, over the past fifteen years I have adopted a middle-way approach of reconciliation and compromise in the pursuit of a peaceful and negotiated resolution of the Tibetan issue. ”
    
    [18] The Dalai Lama addresses Chinese Students and Scholars “Tibet had been an independent country for over a thousand years and I believe that the Tibetan people do have the right to chose independence. ”
    
    [19] ibid “However, it is also a political reality that Tibet is now under Chinese rule. Therefore, in order to find a mutually acceptable solution, I have tried a "middle-way" approach to solve the problem. My approach is also in response to Mr. Deng Xiaoping's message that "anything except independence can be discussed". Accordingly, over the last fifteen years, six official delegations were sent to China and Tibet, and my personal envoy visited China at least ten times. I also made several proposals to the Chinese government. These proposals were announced at prestigious international forums to show my seriousness and sincerity.”
    
    [20] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 36th, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 1995 “ the reality today is that Tibet is an occupied country under colonial rule. This is the essential issue which must be addressed and resolved through negotiations. ”
    
    [21] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 41st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 2000 “It is best left to historians and legal experts to study the case objectively and make their own judgements.”
    
    [22] ibid “They allege that our efforts are aimed at the restoration of Tibet's old social system and the status and privileges of the Dalai Lama. As far as the institution of the Dalai Lams is concerned, I stated publicly as early as 1969 that it is for the people of Tibet to decide whether this institution is to continue or not. In my own case, I made it clear in a formal policy in 1992 that when we return to Tibet, I will hold no positions in any future Tibetan government. Moreover, no Tibetan, whether in exile or within Tibet, has a desire of restoring Tibet's old social order.”
    
    [23] The Dalai Lama addresses Chinese Students and Scholars “our Chinese friends feel the same way when they try to interact with us "reactionary rebel bandits", "slave owners" and "separatists", as the Chinese government refers to us.”
    
    [24] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 39st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 19988 “No Tibetan is interested in restoring outdated political and social institutions. As I have said many times, even the continuation of the institution of the Dalai Lama is for the people to decide. ”
    
    [25] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 41st, Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 2000 “The Chinese leaders refuse to believe that I am not seeking separation but genuine autonomy for the Tibetans. They are quite openly accusing me of lying.”
    
    [26] ibid “My approach envisages that Tibet enjoy genuine autonomy within the framework of the People's Republic of China. Such a mutually beneficial solution would contribute to the stability and unity of China - their two topmost priorities - while at the same time the Tibetans would be ensured of the basic right to preserve their own civilization and to protect the delicate environment of the Tibetan plateau.”
    
    [27] The Statement of Dalai Lama on the 39th. Anniversary of Tibetan National Uprising Day on 10 March 1998 “We seek a sustainable relationship with China based on mutual respect and mutual benefit. We seek a long lasting good relationship with China. We seek no hostility toward China. If we choose to stay in one country, we should live together as true brothers and sisters. If we choose to be separate, we should become good neighbors. A long lasting good relationship with China should always be the top priority of Tibet.With regard to a mutually-acceptable solution to the issue of Tibet, my position is very straightforward. I am not seeking independence. As I have said many times before, what I am seeking is for the Tibetan people to be given the opportunity to have genuine self-rule in order to preserve their civilisation and for the unique Tibetan culture, religion, language and way of life to grow and thrive. My main concern is to ensure the survival of the Tibetan people with their own unique Buddhist cultural heritage. For this, it is essential, as the past decades have shown clearly, that the Tibetans be able to handle all their domestic affairs and to freely determine their social, economic and cultural development.”
    
    [28] ibid “The Chinese government's lack of respect for Tibet's culture, religion, and tradition; its denial of true autonomy for Tibet; its propaganda efforts to portray Tibet as the "most barbarous, most backward, the darkest" region in the world and its high-handed repression in Tibet have all contributed to the alienation of millions of Tibetans. The Chinese government's actions have aroused resentment among Tibetans who see it as chauvinistic and colonialistic. It is therefore fair to say that the Chinese government policy is splitting Tibet from China.”
    
    [29] Statement of Dalai Lama on His Visit to the United States, September 1995 “But if China continues to exploit Tibet and suppress the people, Tibetans will continue to struggle to free themselves from China.”
    
     _(博讯记者:牛虻) (博讯 boxun.com)


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